Experimental Support 1 for Functional miRNA-Target Interaction
Location of target site
Tools used in this research
Original Description (Extracted from the article)
PAR-CLIP data was present in GSM714645. RNA binding protein: AGO2. Condition:completeT1, repB
PAR-CLIP data was present in GSM714644. RNA binding protein: AGO2. Condition:completeT1, repA
HITS-CLIP data was present in GSM714642. RNA binding protein: AGO2. Condition:completeT1, repA
- Kishore S; Jaskiewicz L; Burger L; Hausser et al.
- Nature methods, 2011
Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) is increasingly used to map transcriptome-wide binding sites of RNA-binding proteins. We developed a method for CLIP data analysis, and applied it to compare CLIP with photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced CLIP (PAR-CLIP) and to uncover how differences in cross-linking and ribonuclease digestion affect the identified sites. We found only small differences in accuracies of these methods in identifying binding sites of HuR, which binds low-complexity sequences, and Argonaute 2, which has a complex binding specificity. We found that cross-link-induced mutations led to single-nucleotide resolution for both PAR-CLIP and CLIP. Our results confirm the expectation from original CLIP publications that RNA-binding proteins do not protect their binding sites sufficiently under the denaturing conditions used during the CLIP procedure, and we show that extensive digestion with sequence-specific RNases strongly biases the recovered binding sites. This bias can be substantially reduced by milder nuclease digestion conditions.
- Riley KJ; Rabinowitz GS; Yario TA; Luna JM; et al.
- The EMBO journal, 2012
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) controls gene expression to transform human B cells and maintain viral latency. High-throughput sequencing and crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) identified mRNA targets of 44 EBV and 310 human microRNAs (miRNAs) in Jijoye (Latency III) EBV-transformed B cells. While 25% of total cellular miRNAs are viral, only three viral mRNAs, all latent transcripts, are targeted. Thus, miRNAs do not control the latent/lytic switch by targeting EBV lytic genes. Unexpectedly, 90% of the 1664 human 3'-untranslated regions targeted by the 12 most abundant EBV miRNAs are also targeted by human miRNAs via distinct binding sites. Half of these are targets of the oncogenic miR-17 approximately 92 miRNA cluster and associated families, including mRNAs that regulate transcription, apoptosis, Wnt signalling, and the cell cycle. Reporter assays confirmed the functionality of several EBV and miR-17 family miRNA-binding sites in EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), EBV BHRF1, and host CAPRIN2 mRNAs. Our extensive list of EBV and human miRNA targets implicates miRNAs in the control of EBV latency and illuminates viral miRNA function in general.
UNLABELLED: The question of how HIV-1 interfaces with cellular microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and effector mechanisms has been highly controversial. Here, we first used deep sequencing of small RNAs present in two different infected cell lines (TZM-bl and C8166) and two types of primary human cells (CD4(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs] and macrophages) to unequivocally demonstrate that HIV-1 does not encode any viral miRNAs. Perhaps surprisingly, we also observed that infection of T cells by HIV-1 has only a modest effect on the expression of cellular miRNAs at early times after infection. Comprehensive analysis of miRNA binding to the HIV-1 genome using the photoactivatable ribonucleoside-induced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) technique revealed several binding sites for cellular miRNAs, a subset of which were shown to be capable of mediating miRNA-mediated repression of gene expression. However, the main finding from this analysis is that HIV-1 transcripts are largely refractory to miRNA binding, most probably due to extensive viral RNA secondary structure. Together, these data demonstrate that HIV-1 neither encodes viral miRNAs nor strongly influences cellular miRNA expression, at least early after infection, and imply that HIV-1 transcripts have evolved to avoid inhibition by preexisting cellular miRNAs by adopting extensive RNA secondary structures that occlude most potential miRNA binding sites. IMPORTANCE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a ubiquitous class of small regulatory RNAs that serve as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Previous work has suggested that HIV-1 might subvert the function of the cellular miRNA machinery by expressing viral miRNAs or by dramatically altering the level of cellular miRNA expression. Using very sensitive approaches, we now demonstrate that neither of these ideas is in fact correct. Moreover, HIV-1 transcripts appear to largely avoid regulation by cellular miRNAs by adopting an extensive RNA secondary structure that occludes the ability of cellular miRNAs to interact with viral mRNAs. Together, these data suggest that HIV-1, rather than seeking to control miRNA function in infected cells, has instead evolved a mechanism to become largely invisible to cellular miRNA effector mechanisms.
BACKGROUND: Various microRNAs (miRNAs) are up- or downregulated in tumors. However, the repression of cognate miRNA targets responsible for the phenotypic effects of this dysregulation in patients remains largely unexplored. To define miRNA targets and associated pathways, together with their relationship to outcome in breast cancer, we integrated patient-paired miRNA-mRNA expression data with a set of validated miRNA targets and pathway inference. RESULTS: To generate a biochemically-validated set of miRNA-binding sites, we performed argonaute-2 photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (AGO2-PAR-CLIP) in MCF7 cells. We then defined putative miRNA-target interactions using a computational model, which ranked and selected additional TargetScan-predicted interactions based on features of our AGO2-PAR-CLIP binding-site data. We subselected modeled interactions according to the abundance of their constituent miRNA and mRNA transcripts in tumors, and we took advantage of the variability of miRNA expression within molecular subtypes to detect miRNA repression. Interestingly, our data suggest that miRNA families control subtype-specific pathways; for example, miR-17, miR-19a, miR-25, and miR-200b show high miRNA regulatory activity in the triple-negative, basal-like subtype, whereas miR-22 and miR-24 do so in the HER2 subtype. An independent dataset validated our findings for miR-17 and miR-25, and showed a correlation between the expression levels of miR-182 targets and overall patient survival. Pathway analysis associated miR-17, miR-19a, and miR-200b with leukocyte transendothelial migration. CONCLUSIONS: We combined PAR-CLIP data with patient expression data to predict regulatory miRNAs, revealing potential therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in breast cancer.